Different Animals Used In Scientific Research and Education
From time immemorial, man has depended on animals for his survival, either as food (cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry etc.) or for competition and companionship (horse, dog, cat, parrots etc.). As he knew more about his surroundings, he extended this dependence to acquisition of knowledge, dating back to the days of the great physician Galen, who used animals to demonstrate that arteries contained blood and not air. We have come a long way since then and specially bred laboratory animals consisting of mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, dogs, monkeys, higher farm animals and a variety of birds and other lower forms are now integral part of biomedical research.
The main purposes of animal experiments are for:
Basic biological knowledge
Fundamental medical research
The discovery and development of drugs, vaccines, and medical devices
Toxicity testing of drugs, other chemical entities, and consumer products and
Education and training.
The various departments which use animals for teaching purpose in undergraduate and post graduates courses are: Anatomy, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Neurology, Neurosurgery, Ophthalmology, Endocrinology, Gastroentrology, Physiology, Pathology, Surgery, Cardio-thoracic surgery, Orthopedics, Pediatrics, Biotechnology, Gastrointestinal, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Cardiology, Lab medicine, Psychiatry, Paed. surgery, Medicine, Surgery etc.
The most commonly used animals are: Frog, Mouse, Rat, Hamster, G.Pig, Rabbit, Cat, Dog, Monkey, Sheep etc.
USES OF ANIMALS IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
1. Fundamental biological and medical research
2. Developing new treatments for diseases
3. Preparations of natural products used in medical research and treatment
4. Safety testing of chemicals and drugs
5. Study of genetic disorders
6. Development of new diagnostic tests for diseases
7. In biology and medical education
Regulatory proc¬esses are highly variable, as they are based on cul¬tural values, public opinion, existing laws and local regulations, or even the religious beliefs existing within a particular country. Additionally, numer¬ous guidelines issued by national and international organizations have further tried to promote the care and use of laboratory animals and improve good animal practices. In many cases, the implementa¬tion of these guidelines by institutions has been on a voluntary basis, and as a result there is now a broad variability in the care and use of animals in scientific procedures around the world.